Complex proximal deposition during the plinian eruptions of 1912 at Novarupta, Alaska. The death toll was about 10x in the more recent eruption as well. The nearby Trident, Griggs, and Snowy Mountain volcanoes became active long before Mount Katmai, and activity at Mageik volcano began about the same time as at Katmai. Scientists were just starting to understand the mechanics of volcanic eruptions. Bulletin of Volcanology 66: 95-133. Loading... Unsubscribe from Brandon Solberg? On June 6th, 1912, Mount Katmai/Novarupta erupted on the Alaska mainland, just 250 miles (402 kilometers) southwest of Anchorage. No volcanic eruption sinceTambora in 1815has surpassed it. Episode I included both a rhyolitic ignimbrite and a simultaneous Plinian dispersal of rhyolitic tephra fallout. Over the many weeks of continued erupting over 700 feet of ash was deposited in the vicinity of the dome. Martin, G.C. Explosive eruptions are best compared by recalculating the amount of erupted volcanic materials, such as ash and pumice, in terms of the original volume of molten rock (magma) released (shown diagramatically by orange spheres). The ash deposits were thickest near the source of the eruption and decreased in thickness downwind. The ash fell to earth 30cm deep over a 3,000 square mile area (7,800 square km) forming the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. Novarupta Eruption of 1912 Brandon Solberg. USGS Image. The residents of Kodiak were forced to take shelter indoors. Medium Resolution 164 KB. On June 6, 1912, Mount Novarupta, in central Alaska, exploded into a fiery volcano. Rated a 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the 60-hour-long eruption expelled 3.1 to 3.6 cubic miles (13 to 15 km ) of ash, thirty times as much as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. The relative size of the Novarupta eruption compared to other volcanoes on the basis of cubic miles of magma ejected. Enormous quantities of hot, glowing pumice and ash were ejected from Novarupta and nearby fissures. Novarupta (meaning "newly erupted"[2] in Latin) is a volcano that was formed in 1912, located on the Alaska Peninsula in Katmai National Park and Preserve, about 290 miles (470 km) southwest of Anchorage. Oct. 3, 2006: In June 1912, Novarupta—one of a chain of volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula—erupted in what turned out to be the largest blast of the twentieth century. Severe earthquakes rocked the area for a week before Novarupta exploded with cataclysmic force. A small community is covered in ash from the Novarupta eruption, 1912 (photo by Library Web Team, USGS) This area of … (editors) (1990), "Katmai: Hiking the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes", "Can Another Great Volcanic Eruption Happen in Alaska? [16], Pyroclastic flows from the eruption formed the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, named by botanist Robert F. Griggs, who explored the volcano's aftermath for the National Geographic Society in 1916. During the eruption a large quantity of magma erupted from beneath the Mount Katmai area, resulting in the formation of a 1.2-mile (2 km) wide, funnel-shaped vent and the collapse of Mount Katmai's summit, creating a 2,000-foot (600 m) deep,[4] 1.9 by 2.5 mi (3 by 4 km) caldera. Within just a few hours after the eruption, a thick blanket of ash began falling upon the town - and ash continued falling for the next three days, covering the town up to one foot deep. The inhabitants of Kodiak, Alaska, on Kodiak Island, about 100 miles away, were among the first people to realize the severity of this eruption. Image by USGS. The 1912 Novarupta eruption was characterized by three main episodes spanning 60 hours. Novarupta-Katmai Ash Resuspension. In my lifetime we've had Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991 which was 10x bigger than when Mount St Helen's in Washington state USA blew its top in 1980. The Novarupta eruption was the most powerful of the 20th century (and 21st so far) and ranks among the largest in recorded history. The top several hundred feet of Katmai - about one cubic mile of material - collapsed into a magma chamber below. The eruption of Novarupta on June 6-8, 1912, produced an estimated four cubic miles (17 km3) of ash fallout (Fierstein and Hildreth 1992) and resulted in one of the most significant cooling events of the twentieth century (Briffa et al. The recent eruption of … The first scientific investigation to get an up-close look at the eruption area did not occur until 1916 when Robert Griggs found a 2-mile-wide caldera where Mount Katmai once stood. Photo by Jay Robinson, National Park Service. (A pyroclastic flow is a mixture of superheated gas, dust, and ash that is heavier than the surrounding air and flows down the flank of the volcano with great speed and force. Weeks or even months before most large eruptions, a buzz circulates through an electronically connected community of volcano scientists as clusters of small earthquakes are detected by a global array of seismographs. The caldera rim reaches a maximum elevation of 6,716 feet (2,047 m). The largest eruption of the 20th century occurred in 1912, from June 6 to June 8, to form Novarupta. Episode I included both a rhyolitic ignimbrite and a simultaneous Plinian dispersal of rhyolitic tephra fallout. Impact of the Eruption. Hildreth (1987) estimates the volume of the Novarupta lava dome to be 0.005 cubic km. These can result in a significant loss of life and financial impact. (VEI 6) 5 — L’éruption du Pinatubo, en 1991, a projeté plus de 5 km3 de matière dans l’air et a créé une colonne de cendres qui monta jusqu’à 35 km dans l’atmosphère. This discovery produced a revelation that Novarupta - and not Katmai - was the volcano responsible for the eruption (see satellite image medium resolution, 164 KB or higher resolution, 1330 KB). The result was a removal of support from beneath Mount Katmai, which is six miles from Novarupta. Here are a few things that set the eruption apart, plucked from columns I've … This eruption was the world's largest during the 20th century and produced a voluminous rhyolitic airfall tephra and the renowned Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes (VTTS) ash flow. Centennial Perspecitves. Often it is a false alarm – the volcano is simply stirring. The most powerful volcanic eruption of the 20th Century was about to begin – but very few people knew about it. Novarupta pyroclastic flow and ashfall: Satellite image of the Novarupta / Katmai area showing the geographic extent of the pyroclastic flow (yellow) and ash deposit contours (red). Recent studies have linked high latitude volcanic eruptions with altered surface temperature patterns and low rainfall levels in many parts of the world. Depuis cette date, le Novarupta n’a connu aucune autre éruption. [19], Wood, C.A. Novarupta's eruption was the largest of the 20th century and took place over 60 hours from the 6th June 1912. Le Novarupta n'est entré qu'une seule fois en éruption du 6 juin à octobre 1912 [3]. The noise from the blast would have commanded their attention, and the visual impact of seeing an ash cloud rise quickly to an elevation of 20 miles then drift towards them would have been terrifying. It was so powerful that it drained magma from under another volcano, Mount Katmai, six miles east, causing the summit of Katmai to collapse to form a caldera half a mile deep. But about 40 years later the source was finally attributed to Novarupta. Jet engines process enormous amounts of air, and flying through finely dispersed ash can cause engine failure. The Katmai eruption was the largest of the 20th century. The erupted magma of rhyolite, dacite, and andesite resulted in more than 4.1 cubic miles (17 km ) of air fall tuff and approximately 2.6 cubic miles (11 km ) of pyroclasti… This is more ejecta than all of the other historic Alaska eruptions combined. The illustration on this page shows the ashfall impact areas for five important volcanic eruptions of the 20th century. Thousands of jets of steam were roaring from the ground. Still, the eruption from Katmai had a VEI of 3, and possibly involved phreatic eruptions. Novarupta's eruption was the largest of the 20th century and took place over 60 hours from the 6th June 1912. Winds then carried it across North America. (The accompanying satellite image shows the original geographic extent of pyroclastic flow deposits as a yellow line.). Future activity is expected because the Alaska peninsula is on an active convergent boundary. 2004. Griggs was so impressed that he called it the “Valley of 10,000 Smokes”. Approximately 700 studied blocks fall into four main lithologic categories: (1) pumiceous, (2) dense, (3) flow-banded dacites, and (4) welded breccias. Ash fell on the town of Kodiak for three days, and although the town was about 100 miles from the volcano, it was covered with over one foot of ash which collapsed many buildings. Novarupta, volcanic vent and lava dome, southern Alaska, U.S., located at an elevation of 841 metres (2,759 feet) within Katmai National Park and Preserve. The Novarupta-Katmai eruption of 1912 was hard to imagine then just as it is now, 100 years later. The valley was filled with hot pyroclastic debris and emitted steam from thousands of vents for years after the eruption. 4 — L’éruption du Novarupta, en 1912, était la plus grande éruption volcanique du 20ème siècle. Loading... Unsubscribe from Brandon Solberg? It began on June 6, 1912, and culminated in a series of violent eruptions. Novarupta map: Approximate location of the June 6th, 1912 eruption. The eruption was rated on the Volcanic Explosivity Scale at VEI 6. It was also thirty times more than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, and three times more than the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, the second-largest in the 20th Century. [12], The eruption ended with the extrusion of a lava dome of rhyolite[7] that plugged the vent. In the year 1912 on June 6th, the Katmai Eruption (also known as the Novarupta Volcano eruption) occured, sending nearly 30 cubic kilometers of ash and debris into the atmosphere. If the earthquakes strengthen and begin moving upwards, many of these scientists will travel to the area of potential eruption to make observations and set up a local network of data-gathering instruments. Mount Katmai is a large stratovolcano (composite volcano) on the Alaska Peninsula in southern Alaska, located within Katmai National Park and Preserve.It is about 6.3 miles (10 km) in diameter with a central lake-filled caldera about two by three miles (3.2 by 4.8 km) in size, formed during the Novarupta eruption of 1912. Resuspension and transport of fine-grained volcanic ash from the Katmai National Park and Preserve region of Alaska have been observed and documented over the past several decades, but has likely been occurring ever since the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai eruption. L'éruption se déclenche le 6 juin 1912 et se termine en octobre [1]. Novarupta is a pumice-filled depression that was the vent for the 1912 eruption. It is located on the Alaska Peninsula in Katmai National Park and Preserve, about 290 miles (470 km) southwest of Anchorage.Formed during the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, Novarupta released 30 times the volume of magma of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Impacting the tiny ash particles at high speed is very similar to sandblasting. Novarupta's eruption had removed so much molten rock (magma) from beneath Mount Katmai that it caused a cubic mile of Katmai's summit to collapse." The eruption of Novarupta on June 6-8, 1912, produced an estimated four cubic miles (17 km3) of ash fallout (Fierstein and Hildreth 1992) and resulted in one of the most significant cooling events of the twentieth century (Briffa et al. It began on June 6, 1912, and culminated in a series of violent eruptions. Located in a remote corner of Southwest Alaska, the predominantly rhyolitic eruption provides many opportunities for researchers who agree that high-energy, short-term events are the major shapers of earth’s surface. C’est l’éruption du 6 juin 1912, l’une des plus violentes du siècle, qui leur conféra … ), These flows completely filled the valley of Knife Creek with ash, converting it from a V-shaped valley into a broad flat plain. For the next 60 hours, the eruption sent tall dark columns of tephra and gas high into the atmosphere. The 1912 eruption that formed Novarupta was the largest to occur during the 20th century. Novarupta is a pumice-filled depression that was the vent for the 1912 eruption. After the eruption, the National Geographic Society began sending expeditions to Alaska to survey the results of the eruption and to inventory the volcanoes of the Alaskan peninsula. [14][17], The eruption that formed the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes is one of the few in recorded history to have produced welded tuff, producing numerous fumaroles that persisted for 15 years. James Hine, a zoologist on the expedition, described the location: Katmai crater: Katmai Caldera was originally thought to be the source of the blast. The more you know about a natural hazard, the greater your chances of avoiding injury or loss. However, Novarupta's ashfall was far greater than any other Alaska eruption in recorded history and contained a greater volume than all of the Alaska eruptions which have been recorded combined. [14]:3[15] Eyewitness accounts from people located downwind in the path of a thick ash cloud described the gradual lowering of visibility to next to nothing. Helens. Measurable thickness of ash fell hundreds of miles beyond the one-meter contour line.). Novarupta (qui signifie "nouvellement entré en éruption" en latin) est un volcan qui a été formé en 1912, situé sur la péninsule d'Alaska dans le parc national et réserve de Katmai, à environ 470 km au sud-ouest d' Anchorage.Formé lors de la plus grande éruption volcanique du 20e siècle, Novarupta a libéré 30 fois le volume de magma de l' éruption du mont St. Helens en 1980. What is known as the Novarupta or Katmai eruption of 1912 was huge - ejecting almost 30 cubic kilometers of ash and debris into the atmosphere or along the ground as … The area was originally designated a National Monument in 1918 to protect the area around the 1912 eruption of Novarupta and the 40-square-mile (104 km2), 100-to-700-foot (30 to 210 m) deep, pyroclastic flow of the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. The activity of these volcanoes is monitored by the United States Geological Survey and others so that eruptions can be predicted and their events mitigated. [13], Despite the magnitude of the eruption, no deaths directly resulted. New analytical and experimental data constrain the storage and equilibration conditions of the magmas erupted in 1912 from Novarupta in the 20th century's largest volcanic event. The erup-tion of Novarupta could be heard as far away as Juneau, Alaska, and the ash cloud that swept to the south plunged the island of Kodiak into three days of darkness. Rated a 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index, the 60-hour-long eruption expelled 13 to 15km3 of ash, thirty times as much as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. An eruption the size of Novarupta would ground commercial jet traffic across the North American continent. NPS photo by M. Fitz. Le volume de lave émis est alors de 10 ×10 6 m 3 et celui de téphras est de 28 ± 4 ×10 9 m 3 [ 1 ] . The dome is 1,300 feet ( 400 m) in diameter and about 210 feet (65 m) high. The distribution of ash and the pyroclastic flow confirms that Novarupta - and not Katmai - was the source of the eruption. Elevation : 2,759 ft (841 m) Novarupta, meaning "new eruption", is a new volcano that was created in 1912 and located on the Alaska Peninsula in Katmai National Park and Preserve, about 290 miles (470 km) southwest of Anchorage.Formed in 1912 during the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, Novarupta released 30 times the volume of magma as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Phase relations at H2O+CO2 fluid saturation were determined for an andesite (58.7 wt% SiO2) and a dacite (67.7 wt%) from the compositional extremes of intermediate magmas erupted. Many aspects of the three-day explosive eruption at Novarupta in June 1912 focused attention on this remote volcano, and it has become one of the most intensively studied in the world. The transition is recorded in a dacite block bed, which covers an elliptical area of 4 km 2 around the vent. Back on the peninsula, heavy pyroclastic flows swept over 20 kilometers down the valley of Knife Creek and the upper Ukak River. Novarupta was rated VEI 6 on the volcanic explosivity index. "In the 1950's, volcanologists discovered that the 1912 eruption was actually from Novarupta, not Mount Katmai. ... Novarupta: Biggest Eruption of the 20th and 21st (so far) Centuries - … The explosive outburst at Novarupta (Alaska) in June 1912 was the 20th century’s most voluminous volcanic eruption. Click to Enlarge. On June 6th, 1912, a tremendous blast sent a large cloud of volcanic ash skyward, and the eruption of the century was underway. On 13 November AVO reported that a cloud of ash, resuspended by strong winds in the vicinity of Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, was blown about 120 km SE over Shelikof Strait and Kodiak Island at an altitude of up to 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. A number of moderate sized lahars - volcanic debris flows consisting of rapidly flowing mixtures of water, mud, and rock debris - resulted from the 1912 eruption. Martin, U.S. Geological Survey. Novarupta Lava Dome marks the source of the 1912 eruption. There are many historic reports of ashfall from the eruption in the Pacific Northwest. Robert Griggs led four of these expeditions. The Novarupta-Katmai eruption of June 6-8, 1912, is the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th and 21st Centuries. Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. Novarupta, the least topographically prominent volcano in the Katmai area, was formed during a major eruption in 1912. Houghton, B.F., C.J.N. Novarupta Eruption of 1912 Brandon Solberg. Généralités: Le Novarupta et le Katmaï sont situés sur la presqu’île d’Alaska, à proximité de la marge continentale, devant l’île de Kodiak, dans une région presque inaccessible. Beyond the land shaken by the earthquake activity, the beginnings of this event were almost unnoticed. It began on June 6, 1912, and culminated in a series of violent eruptions. Located in southern Alaska within what is now the Katmai National Park Novarupta meaning "new break" in Latin sent 6.7 cubic miles (28 cubic km) of ash into the air. Higher Resolution. Resuspension and transport of fine-grained volcanic ash from the Katmai National Park and Preserve region of Alaska have been observed and documented over the past several decades, but has likely been occurring ever since the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai eruption. Au cours de cette éruption d'indice d'explosivité volcanique de 6, une surge volcanique s'est formée et s'est principalement dirigée vers le nord-ouest [3]. An estimated 15 cubic kilometers of magma was explosively erupted during 60 hours beginning on June 6th. [4][5][6] The erupted magma of rhyolite, dacite, and andesite[7] resulted in more than 4.1 cubic miles (17 km3) of air fall tuff and approximately 2.6 cubic miles (11 km3) of pyroclastic ash-flow tuff. [16] Ash threatened to contaminate drinking water and decimate food resources, but the native Alaskans were aided in their survival by traditional knowledge passed down through generations from previous eruptions. Novarupta and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes THE LARGEST VOLCANIC ERUPTION OF THE TWENTIETH century took place in Southwest Alaska on June 6, 1912. Alaska peninsula volcanoes. Taken on August 21, 2010 Public domain. The 1912 eruption of Novarupta was the largest on Earth this century. ThePlinian style eruptionat Novarupta on June 6-8, 1912 was the world’s largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century and one of the five largest in recorded history. These large eruptions will have enormous local and global impact. He also found a lava dome at the Novarupta vent. Formed during the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, Novarupta … The Novarupta eruption was the largest in volume in the 20 th Century, and surpassed in history only by the eruption of Mount Tambora about 100 years earlier. Its eruptive volume of 3.1-3.4 mi3 (13-14 km3) of magma places it among the five largest in recorded history. This collapse produced a crater about two miles in diameter and over 800 feet deep. and Kienle, J. It was then carried by the wind to the east, dropping ash as it moved. The Katmai eruption was the largest of the 20th century. Reports are posted on the internet, and news stories communicate the volcano's activity to millions of people. Magma degassing during the Plinian eruption of Novarupta, Alaska, 1912 H. M. Gonnermann Department of Earth Science, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005, USA (helge@rice.edu) B. F. Houghton Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawai‘iatMānoa, Honolulu, Hawai‘i96822,USA However, in 1912, Alaska was not a U.S. state, very few scientists were supported to do volcanic studies, and a worldwide network of seismic monitoring was not in place. Today the stirring of an important volcano draws enormous global attention. Ash from Alaskan volcanoes: Ashfall extent map of Alaska volcanoes. Map by Geology.com and MapResources. 1998). During the eruption a large amount of magma was drained from magma chambers below. High Resolution 1330 KB. Although the eruption had these far-reaching effects, most people outside of Alaska did not know that a volcano had erupted. The 1912 eruption that formed Novarupta was the largest to occur during the 20th century. The 1912 eruption of Novarupta was the largest on Earth this century. 0 comments. L'éruption se déclenche le 6 juin 1912 et se termine en octobre [1]. Marking its centennial, we illustrate and document the complex eruptive sequence, which was long misattributed to nearby Mount Katmai, and how its deposits have provided key insights about volcanic and magmatic processes. Cartography by B. Cole, Geology.com. Panasonic DMC-ZS7 ƒ/3.9; 9.1 mm; 1/160; 80; Flash (off, did not fire) Show EXIF ; JFIFVersion - 1.02; X-Resolution - 180 dpi; Y-Resolution - 180 dpi; Make - Panasonic; Orientation - Horizontal (normal) Software - … Many scientists working at diverse global locations interpret this data and begin to collaborate about an awakening volcano and the eruption that might follow. Image from USGS Fact Sheet 075-98. Novarupta-Katmai Ash Resuspension. We are lucky to have this record of the past. They can assess the potential impact, develop with the possibility of loss in mind, plan a response, educate the public and key decision makers, and monitor the region where it might occur. New analytical and experimental data constrain the storage and equilibration conditions of the magmas erupted in 1912 from Novarupta in the 20th century's largest volcanic event. The lava dome named Novarupta marks the vent of the 1912 eruption. Most assumed that Mount Katmai had erupted, but they were wrong. By the time the eruption was over, the world’s most extensive historic ignimbrite (solidified pyroclastic flow deposit) would be formed. The Novarupta-Katmai Eruption of 1912: Largest Eruption of the Twentieth Century. Within the last 4000 years there have been at least seven Novarupta-scale eruptions within 500 miles of where Anchorage is located today. The Alaska peninsula has a low population density today, but in 1912 it was even lower. The largest twentieth century eruption anywhere on Earth occurred in Alaska, on June 6, 1912, creating the Katmai Caldera and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes. Novarupta, also called Katmai-Novarupta, volcanic vent and lava dome, southern Alaska, U.S., located at an elevation of 841 metres (2,759 feet) within Katmai National Park and Preserve. The below video combines historic photographs … A rhyolite dome extruded into the vent after the eruption. Le Novarupta n'est entré qu'une seule fois en éruption du 6 juin à octobre 1912 [3]. However, the native villages experiencing the heaviest ash falls were abandoned and the inhabitants relocated. Augustine (1976), St. Helens (1980), Redoubt (1990), and Spurr (1992) all produced ashfalls of significant regional impact. Novarupta 1912 We haven't had a really big volcanic eruption this century, so you might think we're due one. There are many historic reports of ashfall from the eruption in the Pacific Northwest. The inhabitants of Kodiak, Alaska, on Kodiak Island, about 100 miles away, … On June 6th, 1912, Mount Katmai/Novarupta erupted on the Alaska mainland. First, the valley of Knife Creek was now barren, level, and filled with a loose, sandy ash which was still hot at depth. Volcanic ash, in quantities more than from all other historical eruptions in Alaska combined, devastated areas hundreds of miles away. The 1912 eruption that formed Novarupta was the largest to occur during the 20th century. Novarupta reported activity, including all types of volcanic activity. L’éruption a projeté 12,5 km3 de magma et de cendres dans les airs. Au cours de cette éruption d' indice d'explosivité volcanique de 6, une surge volcanique s'est formée et s'est principalement dirigée vers le nord-ouest [ 3 ] . Outside, the ash made breathing difficult, stuck to moist eyes, and completely blocked the light of the sun at midday. Eruption du Novarupta. [8] During the 20th century, only the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines and the 1902 eruption of Santa María in Guatemala were of comparable magnitude; Mount Pinatubo ejected 2.6 cubic miles (11 km3) of tephra,[9] and Santa María just slightly less. Marking its centennial, we illustrate and document the complex eruptive sequence, which was long misattributed to nearby Mount Katmai, and how its deposits have provided key insights about volcanic and magmatic processes. Another significant impact is the distribution of volcanic ash. Photo taken by G.C. Formed during the largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century, Novarupta released 30 times the volume of magma of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. Les dépôts de cette surge forment depuis le sol d'ignimbrites de la … In the year 1912 on June 6th, the Katmai Eruption (also known as the Novarupta Volcano eruption) occured, sending nearly 30 cubic kilometers of ash and debris into the atmosphere. The volume of materials expelled was 30 times greater than that of the Mount Saint Helens eruption in 1980. In total, 3.1 mi3(13 km3) of magma exploded out of the earth at Novarupta. This material flowed over the terrain, destroying all life in its path. Novarupta topo map: USGS Topographic Map of the Novarupta/Katmai Area by MyTopo.com. This eruption buried the island of Kodiak in two and a half feet of ash. The June 1912 eruption of Novarupta Volcano altered the Katmai area dramatically. Rated a 6 on the Volcanic Explosivity Index,[3] the 60-hour-long eruption expelled 3.1 to 3.6 cubic miles (13 to 15 km3) of ash, thirty times as much as the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Eruptions the size of Spurr, Augustine, Redoubt and St. Helens can damage jets flying over 1000 miles away. References. Fierstein, 2012, National Park Service (Public domain.) A landslide, triggered by earthquakes during the 1912 eruption, dammed the Katmai River in Katmai Canyon. Landsat image of Novarupta: Landsat satellite image of the Novarupta / Katmai Area. 1913. The 1912 eruption of Novarupta and other Alaskan volcano eruptions have been linked with drought and temperature changes in northern Africa. The eruption of Novarupta volcano in Alaska from June 6–8, 1912, was the largest of the 20th century. of tephra). This paper focuses on such a transition during the largest eruption of the twentieth century, the 1912 eruption of Novarupta.